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Bob The Magic Custodian
Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses. Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes. First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure: Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:
Alice might take the assets and disappear.
Alice might spend the assets and pretend that she still has them (fractional model).
Alice might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Alice might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Alice might lose access to the assets.
But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
Alice can't take the assets and disappear (unless she asks Bob or never gives them to Bob).
Alice can't spend the assets and pretend that she still has them. (Unless she didn't give them to Bob or asks him for them.)
Alice can't store the assets insecurely so they get stolen. (After all - she doesn't have any control over the withdrawal process from any of Bob's systems, right?)
Alice can't give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force. (Bob will stop her, right Bob?)
Alice can't lose access to the funds. (She'll always be present, sane, and remember all secrets, right?)
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
Bob might take the assets and disappear.
Bob might spend the assets and pretend that he still has them (fractional model).
Bob might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Bob might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Bob might lose access to the assets.
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are! "On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid". "Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since." "As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!" "Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?" "Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party." "Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!" "What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven." "Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!" "We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies. And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often". How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen? Just one. Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so? If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security. The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle. And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet? Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds. So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
ANY CERTAINTY BALANCES WEREN'T EXCLUDED. Quadriga's largest account was $70m. 80% of funds are in 20% of accounts (Pareto principle). All it takes is excluding a few really large accounts - and nobody's the wiser. A fractional platform can easily pass any audit this way.
ANY VISIBILITY WHATSOEVER INTO THE CUSTODIANS. BitBuy put out their report before moving all the funds to their custodian and ShakePay apparently can't even tell us who the custodian is. That's pretty important considering that basically all of the funds are now stored there.
ANY IDEA ABOUT THE OTHER EXCHANGES. In order for this to be effective, it has to be the norm. It needs to be "unusual" not to know. If obscurity is the norm, then it's super easy for people like Gerald Cotten and Dave Smilie to blend right in.
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
First report within 1 month of launching, another within 3 months, and further reports at minimum every 6 months thereafter.
No auditor can be repeated within a 12 month period.
All reports must be public, identifying the auditor and the full methodology used.
All auditors must be independent of the firm being audited with no conflict of interest.
Reports must include the percentage of each asset backed, and how it's backed.
The auditor publishes a hash list, which lists a hash of each customer's information and balances that were included. Hash is one-way encryption so privacy is fully preserved. Every customer can use this to have 100% confidence they were included.
If we want more extensive requirements on audits, these should scale upward based on the total assets at risk on the platform, and whether the platform has loaned their assets out.
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever. Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see. It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation. A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7. History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance. Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.) Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive. Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today. Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well. Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do. Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):
The inspiration for the paragraph about splitting wallets was an actual quote from a Canadian company providing custodial services in response to the OSC consultation paper: "We believe that it will be in the in best interests of investors to prohibit pooled crypto assets or ‘floats’. Most Platforms pool assets, citing reasons of practicality and expense. The recent hack of the world’s largest Platform – Binance – demonstrates the vulnerability of participants’ assets when such concessions are made. In this instance, the Platform’s entire hot wallet of Bitcoins, worth over $40 million, was stolen, facilitated in part by the pooling of client crypto assets." "the maintenance of participants (and Platform) crypto assets across multiple wallets distributes the related risk and responsibility of security - reducing the amount of insurance coverage required and making insurance coverage more readily obtainable". For the record, their reply also said nothing whatsoever about multi-sig or offline storage.
In addition to the fact that the $40m hack represented only one "hot wallet" of Binance, and they actually had the vast majority of assets in other wallets (including mostly cold wallets), multiple real cases have clearly demonstrated that risk is still present with multiple wallets. Bitfinex, VinDAX, Bithumb, Altsbit, BitPoint, Cryptopia, and just recently KuCoin all had multiple wallets breached all at the same time, and may represent a significantly larger impact on customers than the Binance breach which was fully covered by Binance. To represent that simply having multiple separate wallets under the same security scheme is a comprehensive way to reduce risk is just not true.
Private insurance has historically never covered a single loss in the cryptocurrency space (at least, not one that I was able to find), and there are notable cases where massive losses were not covered by insurance. Bitpay in 2015 and Yapizon in 2017 both had insurance policies that didn't pay out during the breach, even after a lengthly court process. The same insurance that ShakePay is presently using (and announced to much fanfare) was describe by their CEO himself as covering “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held,” which is something that has never historically happened. As was said with regard to the same policy in 2018 - “I don’t find it surprising that Lloyd’s is in this space,” said Johnson, adding that to his mind the challenge for everybody is figuring out how to structure these policies so that they are actually protective. “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
The most profitable policy for a private insurance company is one with the most expensive premiums that they never have to pay a claim on. They have no inherent incentive to take care of people who lost funds. It's "cheaper" to take the reputational hit and fight the claim in court. The more money at stake, the more the insurance provider is incentivized to avoid payout. They're not going to insure the assets unless they have reasonable certainty to make a profit by doing so, and they're not going to pay out a massive sum unless it's legally forced. Private insurance is always structured to be maximally profitable to the insurance provider.
The circumvention of multi-sig was a key factor in the massive Bitfinex hack of over $60m of bitcoin, which today still sits being slowly used and is worth over $3b. While Bitfinex used a qualified custodian Bitgo, which was and still is active and one of the industry leaders of custodians, and they set up 2 of 3 multi-sig wallets, the entire system was routed through Bitfinex, such that Bitfinex customers could initiate the withdrawals in a "hot" fashion. This feature was also a hit with the hacker. The multi-sig was fully circumvented.
Bitpay in 2015 was another example of a breach that stole 5,000 bitcoins. This happened not through the exploit of any system in Bitpay, but because the CEO of a company they worked with got their computer hacked and the hackers were able to request multiple bitcoin purchases, which Bitpay honoured because they came from the customer's computer legitimately. Impersonation is a very common tactic used by fraudsters, and methods get more extreme all the time.
A notable case in Canada was the Canadian Bitcoins exploit. Funds were stored on a server in a Rogers Data Center, and the attendee was successfully convinced to reboot the server "in safe mode" with a simple phone call, thus bypassing the extensive security and enabling the theft.
The very nature of custodians circumvents multi-sig. This is because custodians are not just having to secure the assets against some sort of physical breach but against any form of social engineering, modification of orders, fraudulent withdrawal attempts, etc... If the security practices of signatories in a multi-sig arrangement are such that the breach risk of one signatory is 1 in 100, the requirement of 3 independent signatures makes the risk of theft 1 in 1,000,000. Since hackers tend to exploit the weakest link, a comparable custodian has to make the entry and exit points of their platform 10,000 times more secure than one of those signatories to provide equivalent protection. And if the signatories beef up their security by only 10x, the risk is now 1 in 1,000,000,000. The custodian has to be 1,000,000 times more secure. The larger and more complex a system is, the more potential vulnerabilities exist in it, and the fewer people can understand how the system works when performing upgrades. Even if a system is completely secure today, one has to also consider how that system might evolve over time or work with different members.
By contrast, offline multi-signature solutions have an extremely solid record, and in the entire history of cryptocurrency exchange incidents which I've studied (listed here), there has only been one incident (796 exchange in 2015) involving an offline multi-signature wallet. It happened because the customer's bitcoin address was modified by hackers, and the amount that was stolen ($230k) was immediately covered by the exchange operators. Basically, the platform operators were tricked into sending a legitimate withdrawal request to the wrong address because hackers exploited their platform to change that address. Such an issue would not be prevented in any way by the use of a custodian, as that custodian has no oversight whatsoever to the exchange platform. It's practical for all exchange operators to test large withdrawal transactions as a general policy, regardless of what model is used, and general best practice is to diagnose and fix such an exploit as soon as it occurs.
False promises on the backing of funds played a huge role in the downfall of Quadriga, and it's been exposed over and over again (MyCoin, PlusToken, Bitsane, Bitmarket, EZBTC, IDAX). Even today, customers have extremely limited certainty on whether their funds in exchanges are actually being backed or how they're being backed. While this issue is not unique to cryptocurrency exchanges, the complexity of the technology and the lack of any regulation or standards makes problems more widespread, and there is no "central bank" to come to the rescue as in the 2008 financial crisis or during the great depression when "9,000 banks failed".
In addition to fraudulent operations, the industry is full of cases where operators have suffered breaches and not reported them. Most recently, Einstein was the largest case in Canada, where ongoing breaches and fraud were perpetrated against the platform for multiple years and nobody found out until the platform collapsed completely. While fraud and breaches suck to deal with, they suck even more when not dealt with. Lack of visibility played a role in the largest downfalls of Mt. Gox, Cryptsy, and Bitgrail. In some cases, platforms are alleged to have suffered a hack and keep operating without admitting it at all, such as CoinBene.
It surprises some to learn that a cryptographic solution has already existed since 2013, and gained widespread support in 2014 after Mt. Gox. Proof of Reserves is a full cryptographic proof that allows any customer using an exchange to have complete certainty that their crypto-assets are fully backed by the platform in real-time. This is accomplished by proving that assets exist on the blockchain, are spendable, and fully cover customer deposits. It does not prove safety of assets or backing of fiat assets.
If we didn't care about privacy at all, a platform could publish their wallet addresses, sign a partial transaction, and put the full list of customer information and balances out publicly. Customers can each check that they are on the list, that the balances are accurate, that the total adds up, and that it's backed and spendable on the blockchain. Platforms who exclude any customer take a risk because that customer can easily check and see they were excluded. So together with all customers checking, this forms a full proof of backing of all crypto assets.
However, obviously customers care about their private information being published. Therefore, a hash of the information can be provided instead. Hash is one-way encryption. The hash allows the customer to validate inclusion (by hashing their own known information), while anyone looking at the list of hashes cannot determine the private information of any other user. All other parts of the scheme remain fully intact. A model like this is in use on the exchange CoinFloor in the UK.
A Merkle tree can provide even greater privacy. Instead of a list of balances, the balances are arranged into a binary tree. A customer starts from their node, and works their way to the top of the tree. For example, they know they have 5 BTC, they plus 1 other customer hold 7 BTC, they plus 2-3 other customers hold 17 BTC, etc... until they reach the root where all the BTC are represented. Thus, there is no way to find the balances of other individual customers aside from one unidentified customer in this case.
Proposals such as this had the backing of leaders in the community including Nic Carter, Greg Maxwell, and Zak Wilcox. Substantial and significant effort started back in 2013, with massive popularity in 2014. But what became of that effort? Very little. Exchange operators continue to refuse to give visibility. Despite the fact this information can often be obtained through trivial blockchain analysis, no Canadian platform has ever provided any wallet addresses publicly. As described by the CEO of Newton "For us to implement some kind of realtime Proof of Reserves solution, which I'm not opposed to, it would have to ... Preserve our users' privacy, as well as our own. Some kind of zero-knowledge proof". Kraken describes here in more detail why they haven't implemented such a scheme. According to professor Eli Ben-Sasson, when he spoke with exchanges, none were interested in implementing Proof of Reserves.
And yet, Kraken's places their reasoning on a page called "Proof of Reserves". More recently, both BitBuy and ShakePay have released reports titled "Proof of Reserves and Security Audit". Both reports contain disclaimers against being audits. Both reports trust the customer list provided by the platform, leaving the open possibility that multiple large accounts could have been excluded from the process. Proof of Reserves is a blockchain validation where customers see the wallets on the blockchain. The report from Kraken is 5 years old, but they leave it described as though it was just done a few weeks ago. And look at what they expect customers to do for validation. When firms represent something being "Proof of Reserve" when it's not, this is like a farmer growing fruit with pesticides and selling it in a farmers market as organic produce - except that these are people's hard-earned life savings at risk here. Platforms are misrepresenting the level of visibility in place and deceiving the public by their misuse of this term. They haven't proven anything.
Fraud isn't a problem that is unique to cryptocurrency. Fraud happens all the time. Enron, WorldCom, Nortel, Bear Stearns, Wells Fargo, Moser Baer, Wirecard, Bre-X, and Nicola are just some of the cases where frauds became large enough to become a big deal (and there are so many countless others). These all happened on 100% reversible assets despite regulations being in place. In many of these cases, the problems happened due to the over-complexity of the financial instruments. For example, Enron had "complex financial statements [which] were confusing to shareholders and analysts", creating "off-balance-sheet vehicles, complex financing structures, and deals so bewildering that few people could understand them". In cryptocurrency, we are often combining complex financial products with complex technologies and verification processes. We are naïve if we think problems like this won't happen. It is awkward and uncomfortable for many people to admit that they don't know how something works. If we want "money of the people" to work, the solutions have to be simple enough that "the people" can understand them, not so confusing that financial professionals and technology experts struggle to use or understand them.
For those who question the extent to which an organization can fool their way into a security consultancy role, HB Gary should be a great example to look at. Prior to trying to out anonymous, HB Gary was being actively hired by multiple US government agencies and others in the private sector (with glowing testimonials). The published articles and hosted professional security conferences. One should also look at this list of data breaches from the past 2 years. Many of them are large corporations, government entities, and technology companies. These are the ones we know about. Undoubtedly, there are many more that we do not know about. If HB Gary hadn't been "outted" by anonymous, would we have known they were insecure? If the same breach had happened outside of the public spotlight, would it even have been reported? Or would HB Gary have just deleted the Twitter posts, brought their site back up, done a couple patches, and kept on operating as though nothing had happened?
In the case of Quadriga, the facts are clear. Despite past experience with platforms such as MapleChange in Canada and others around the world, no guidance or even the most basic of a framework was put in place by regulators. By not clarifying any sort of legal framework, regulators enabled a situation where a platform could be run by former criminal Mike Dhanini/Omar Patryn, and where funds could be held fully unchecked by one person. At the same time, the lack of regulation deterred legitimate entities from running competing platforms and Quadriga was granted a money services business license for multiple years of operation, which gave the firm the appearance of legitimacy. Regulators did little to protect Canadians despite Quadriga failing to file taxes from 2016 onward. The entire administrative team had resigned and this was public knowledge. Many people had suspicions of what was going on, including Ryan Mueller, who forwarded complaints to the authorities. These were ignored, giving Gerald Cotten the opportunity to escape without justice.
There are multiple issues with the SOC II model including the prohibitive cost (you have to find a third party accounting firm and the prices are not even listed publicly on any sites), the requirement of operating for a year (impossible for new platforms), and lack of any public visibility (SOC II are private reports that aren't shared outside the people in suits).
Securities frameworks are expensive. Sarbanes-Oxley is estimated to cost $5.1 million USD/yr for the average Fortune 500 company in the United States. Since "Fortune 500" represents the top 500 companies, that means well over $2.55 billion USD (~$3.4 billion CAD) is going to people in suits. Isn't the problem of trust and verification the exact problem that the blockchain is supposed to solve?
To use Quadriga as justification for why custodians or SOC II or other advanced schemes are needed for platforms is rather silly, when any framework or visibility at all, or even the most basic of storage policies, would have prevented the whole thing. It's just an embarrassment.
We are now seeing regulators take strong action. CoinSquare in Canada with multi-million dollar fines. BitMex from the US, criminal charges and arrests. OkEx, with full disregard of withdrawals and no communication. Who's next?
We have a unique window today where we can solve these problems, and not permanently destroy innovation with unreasonable expectations, but we need to act quickly. This is a unique historic time that will never come again.
I was tipped Nano, what's next? Congrats on receiving your first Nano tip! The first thing you should do is move your Nano to your own, secure wallet for safe keeping. This will only take 5-10 minutes. -- Setting up your wallet There is a number of wallets available that support Nano but we recommend: IOS: Natrium or Canoe Android: Natrium or Canoe PC/Web: Brainblocks Wallet Remember to carefully store your seed phrase during the wallet signup process. If you lose this seed you may lose access to your Nano. We recommend writing it down in multiple locations for additional peace of mind. -- Withdrawing your Nano from the Tip-bot Now that you have your wallet set-up you will need to PM the tip bot, u/nano_tipper to instruct it on where to send your funds. To withdraw your Nano, you should PM the bot the following:
send [amount of Nano] [your address]
Where the amount is the total value of the tips you have received ( You can PM the bot, "balance" if you do not know this) and the address is your wallet address, which you can find in the wallet app you have just downloaded, usually under "Receive" or "My Account" pages. e.g:
If you have any problems with this step, leave a comment below, visit the tip-bot documentation or official subreddit. -- What to do with your Nano Once you have your Nano in your own wallet, it's up to you what you want to do with it. Like any currency, you can save it, spend it or sell it: ---- > Spending Nano Like any currency, Nano is meant to be spent! and with zero fees & instantaneous transactions there is no better method to buy the products / services you love. Currently there are a number of things you can purchase with Nano, including: Games, gift-cards, hotel stays, in-game currency, gambling, takeaway food and even pay in-store in certain locations. List of stores accepting Nano Alternatively you can signup for Wirex and within 3-5 days receive a Visa debit card capable of spending Nano at any of millions of physical locations or online stores worldwide in which Visa is accepted. How does paying with Nano compare to other popular payment methods?
---- > Selling Nano You may wish to sell your Nano for your local currency (USD/EUGBP etc.) or exchange it for another cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. This is easy to do and should only take an hour even for someone new to Nano. To sell your Nano for a local / fiat currency, there are a number of services you can use, such as the following: Sell to USD: Kraken, Coingate Sell to EUR:Wirex, Kraken, Bitvavo, Coingate Sell to GBP:Wirex Other: Wirex (AUD, HKD, JPY, CAD) To sell your Nano in exchange for a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, we recommend the following: BTC: Binance, Kucoin ETH: Binance, Kucoin USDT: Binance Nollar: Txbit Full list of exchanges -- More information / Need help? For more information and/or help on moving/using/selling Nano, you can turn to the helpful folks on the official subreddit, nanocurrency or the official Nano Discord. --- --- --- What is Nano worth? At the time of posting, 1 Nano = $1.02 USD but you can check the current price here as it will fluctuate over time. --- --- --- What is Nano? Nano is a digital currency for the real world - the fast and free way to pay for everything in life. It features instant transactions, zero fees and is infinitely scalable. Gone are the days of complicated and energy-inefficient transactions - Nano is green and easy to use. --- --- --- What is Nano For Good? Nano For Good is a community-run (initially by three community members) initiative to help better promote Nano, fund Nano-based projects and support helpful community posts. With 45,000 Nano in our fund and over 18,000 Nano distributed & tipped to date. Follow our progress here: https://nanocrawler.cc/exploreaccount/xrb_3cnhdppkx46f9jnagbizhxo84zjfp17tznpcf6x9q47jkujjqbq48aag5fid
Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20191111(Market index 40 — Fear state)
https://preview.redd.it/ng1rc23cm1y31.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6b4874423f96506b8ff820b8983e6fac5f093a6a Argentina Sets New Trading Record After Central Bank Bans Bitcoin BuysBitcoin (BTC) trading set new records in two of its most keenly watched South American markets last week, new data has revealed.As monitoring resource Coin Dance confirmed on Nov. 10, the seven days ending Saturday (Nov 9) saw more trading against BTC than ever before in both Venezuela and Argentina.In total, Venezuela traded 142.9 billion sovereign bolivars (VES) last week, while Argentina managed 19.4 million pesos (ARS). Both are firm records over previous levels. Bitcoin Called “First Successful Application Of Blockchain” By State-Run Chinese NewspaperChinese state news agency Xinhua has published a front-page article entitled “Bitcoin: The First Successful Application of Blockchain Technology,” according to Sino Global Capital CEO Matthew Graham.The lengthy article explains the main peculiarities of Bitcoin, an open-source P2P cryptocurrency, describing how BTC transactions and mining work. It also mentions that the price of the top cryptocurrency tends to fluctuate a lot, and it’s difficult to ensure its stability. Canada’s First Legally-Delivered USD Stablecoin Launched By Blockchain Venture CapitalThe Blockchain Venture Capital Inc. (BVCI) has launched CUSD — the first legally delivered USD-stablecoin in Canada.The cryptocurrency is supplemented by a mobile wallet called Bvc Pay which is used to store, exchange, and trade CUSD over-the-counter (OTC).The same company also developed the world’s first stablecoin pegged to the value of the Canadian dollar (CAD) — first launched on Canada Day back on July 1, 2019. Bitcoin Mining Difficulty Sees Biggest 2019 Drop As Hash Rate SpikesBitcoin (BTC) mining difficulty adjusted downwards more than at any time since its 2018 price low on Nov. 8, data shows.As noted by entrepreneur and cryptocurrency commentator Alistair Milne on Monday (Nov 11), difficulty fell by around 7% after the network’s latest readjustment. After a major decline, bitcoin found support near the $8,670 level against the US Dollar. A new monthly low was formed near $8,674 before the price started an upside correction. The price recovered above the $8,800 and $8,900 levels. Moreover, there was a break above the $9,000 resistance area and the 100 hourly simple moving average. The bulls were able to gain strength, but they faced a strong selling interest near the $9,150 and $9,160 levels. A high was formed near $9,146 and the price is currently retreating from the high. It broke the $9,000 support area and the 100 hourly SMA. Additionally, there was a break below the 23.6% Fib retracement level of the recent wave from the $8,674 low to $9,146 high. Review previous articles:https://email@example.com
Encrypted project calendar（November 11, 2019）
PAX/Paxos Standard:Paxos Standard (PAX) 2019 Singapore Financial Technology Festival will be held from November 11th to 15th, and Paxos Standard will attend the conference.Crypto.com Coin (CRO):and 3 others 11 November 2019 Capital Warm-up Party Capital Warm-up Party in Singapore.GoldCoin (GLC):11 November 2019 Reverse Bitcoin Hardfork The GoldCoin (GLC) Team will be “Reverse Hard Forking” the Bitcoin (BTC) Blockchain…”Horizen (ZEN):11 November 2019 (or earlier) Horizen Giveaway — Nodes Horizen Giveaway — Win Free Node Hosting! Entries before November 11th.SINOVATE (SIN):11 November 2019 Roadmap V3 SINOVATE (SIN) Roadmap V3 will be released with new upcoming technologies and proof of concepts!0x (ZRX):11 November 2019 0x V3 Vote Ends “The voting period will end on November 11. Learn more about all the exciting features included in v3 below.”Akropolis (AKRO):and 4 others 11 November 2019 Kucoin Blockchain Day “KuCoin Blockchain Day Berlin 2019” from 5 PM — 9:15 PM (CET) in Berlin.
Encrypted project calendar（November 12, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The CoinMarketCap Global Conference will be held at the Victoria Theatre in Singapore from November 12th to 13thBinance Coin (BNB)and 7 others: 12 November 2019 CMC Global Conference “The first-ever CoinMarketCap large-scale event: A one-of-a-kind blockchain / crypto experience like you’ve never experienced before.”Aion (AION)and 17 others: 12 November 2019 The Capital The Capital conference from November 12–13 in Singapore.Loom Network (LOOM):12 November 2019 Transfer Gateway Update “If you have a dapp that relies on the Transfer Gateway, follow the instructions below to make sure you’re prepared.”Kava (KAVA):12 November 2019 Updated Mainnet Launch “Our updated mainnet launch will be on Tuesday November 12th at 14:00 UTC.”Crypto.com Coin (CRO):12 November 2019 Telegram AMA Live AMA with CRO COO and Kucoin’s Global Community Manager on KuCoin’s official English Telegram channel at 16:00 (UTC+8).Chainlink (LINK):and 1 other 12 November 2019 NYC Meetup “Ontology + Future of Blockchain in China Meetup Presented by Chainlink” in NYC from 6:30 PM — 8:30 PM.
Encrypted project calendar（November 13, 2019）
Fetch.ai (FET):13 November 2019 Cambridge Meetup “Join us for a@Fetch_ai#Cambridge #meetup on 13 November@pantonarms1.”Binance Coin (BNB)and 5 others: 13 November 2019 Blockchain Expo N.A. “It will bring together key industries from across the globe for two days of top-level content and discussion across 5 co-located events…”OKB (OKB):13 November 2019 Dnipro, Ukraine- Talks Join us in Dnipro as we journey through Ukraine for our OKEx Cryptour on 11 Nov.Centrality (CENNZ):13 November 2019 AMA Meetup “Ask our CEO@aaronmcdnzanything in person! Join the AMA meetup on 13 November in Singapore.”OKB (OKB):13 November 2019 OKEx Cryptotour Dnipro “OKEx Cryptour Ukraine 2019 — Dnipro” in Dnipro from 6–9 PM (EET).Vexanium (VEX):13 November 2019 Dapps Incentive Program Vexanium will give an incentive for every Dapps that is submitted during this program period.Egretia (EGT):13 November 2019 Post Consensus Invest “2019 NYC Blockchain Gaming & DeFi Party | Post Consensus Invest” in NYC from 7–9 PM.Holo (HOT):13 November 2019 AMA “Submit your questions before the #AMA on Nov 13th @ 5PM — 5:45PM UTC”
Encrypted project calendar（November 14, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 BlockShow Asia Summit will be held at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore from November 14th to 15th.Binance Coin (BNB):and 4 others 14 November 2019 BlockShow Asia 2019 BlockShow Asia 2019 at Marina Bay Sands Expo, Singapore from November 14–15.Basic Attention Token (BAT): 14 November 2019 London Privacy Meetup “If you’re in London on Nov. 14th, don’t miss our privacy meetup! The Brave research team, our CPO@johnnyryan, as well as@UoE_EFIHorizen (ZEN):14 November 2019 Weekly Insider Team updates at 3:30 PM UTC/ 11:30 AM EDT: Engineering, Node network, Product/UX, Helpdesk, Legal, BD, Marketing, CEO Closing thoughts, AMA.IOTA (MIOTA):14 November 2019 Berlin Meetup From Construction to Smart City: IOTA, Maschinenraum & Thinkt Digital will explain, using concrete use cases, how to gain real value from..Dash (DASH):14 November 2019 Q3 Summary Call “Dash Core Group Q3 2019 Summary Call — Thursday, 14 November 2019”NEO (NEO):14 November 2019 NeoFest Singapore Meetup “Glad to have@Nicholas_Mertenfrom DataDash as our host for #NeoFest Singapore meetup on 14th Nov!”ANON (ANON):14 November 2019 ANONIO Wallet Upgrade In conjunction with the Echelon Update, the ANONIO wallet will also be receiving an upgrade!
Encrypted project calendar（November 15, 2019）
TRON (TRX):15 November 2019 Cross-chain Project “The #TRON cross-chain project will be available on Nov. 15th”Bluzelle (BLZ):15 November 2019 (or earlier) CURIE Release CURIE release expected by early November 2019.Zebi (ZCO):15 November 2019 ZEBI Token Swap Ends “… We will give 90 days to all the ERC 20 token holders to swap out their tokens into Zebi coins.”OKB (OKB):15 November 2019 OKEx Talks — Vilnius “Join us for a meetup on 15 Nov (Fri) for our 1st ever Talks in Vilnius, Lithuania.”Zenon (ZNN):15 November 2019 Awareness Fund Payout “Distribution of the fund takes place every Friday until Pillars Lock-in Phase is completed.”
Encrypted project calendar（November 16, 2019）
Bancor (BNT): and 2 others 16 November 2019 Crypto DeFiance-Singapore “Crypto DeFiance is a new global DeFi event embracing established innovators, financial market disruptors, DApp developers…”NEM (XEM):16 November 2019 Developer’s Event “BLOCKCHAIN: Creation of Multifirma services” from 10:50 AM — 2 PM.
Encrypted project calendar（November 17, 2019）
OKB (OKB):17 November 2019 OKEx Talks — Lagos Join us on 17 Nov for another OKEx Talks, discussing the “Life of a Crypto Trader”.
Encrypted project calendar（November 18, 2019）
Maker (MKR):18 November 2019 MCD Launch “BIG changes to terminology are coming with the launch of MCD on Nov. 18th Say hello to Vaults, Dai, and Sai.”
Encrypted project calendar（November 19, 2019）
Lisk (LSK):19 November 2019 Lisk.js “We are excited to announce liskjs2019 will take place on November 19th. This all day blockchain event will include…”Aion (AION):19 November 2019 Hard Fork “Leading up to the hard fork on November 19th-20th, 2019 the Unity — Aion Kernel will be upgraded by node operators.”
Encrypted project calendar（November 20, 2019）
OKB (OKB):20 November 2019 OKEx Cryptour Odessa Ukr “Join us in Odessa as we journey through Ukraine for our OKEx Cryptour!DAPS Token (DAPS):20 November 2019 Partnership with SWFT “Everyone will have $DAPS mobile wallets, atomic swaps and much more starting on the 20th of November!”
Encrypted project calendar（November 21, 2019）
Cardano (ADA):and 2 others 21 November 2019 Meetup Netherlands (AMS) “This meetup is all about how to decentralize a blockchain, the problems and differences between Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake…”Cappasity (CAPP):21 November 2019 Virtuality Paris 2019 “Cappasity to demonstrate its solution for the interactive shopping experience at Virtuality Paris 2019.”Horizen (ZEN):21 November 2019 Weekly Insider Team updates at 3:30 PM UTC/ 11:30 AM EDT: Engineering, Node network, Product/UX, Helpdesk, Legal, BD, Marketing, CEO Closing thoughts, AMA.OKB (OKB):21 November 2019 OKEx Talks — Johannesburg “Join us the largest city of South Africa — Johannesburg where we will host our OKEx Talks on the 21st Nov.”IOST (IOST):22 November 2019 Singapore Workshop Join the Institute of Blockchain for their 2nd IOST technical workshop in Singapore on 22 Nov 2019. The workshop includes IOST’s key tech.OKB (OKB):22 November 2019 St. Petersberg Talks “Join us in St. Petersberg on 22 Nov as we answer your questions on Crypto Security. “
Encrypted project calendar（November 22, 2019）
IOST (IOST):22 November 2019 Singapore Workshop Join the Institute of Blockchain for their 2nd IOST technical workshop in Singapore on 22 Nov 2019. The workshop includes IOST’s key techOKB (OKB):22 November 2019 St. Petersberg Talks “Join us in St. Petersberg on 22 Nov as we answer your questions on Crypto Security. “
Encrypted project calendar（November 27, 2019）
OKB (OKB):27 November 2019 OKEx Cryptour Vinnytsia “Join us in Vinnytsia as we journey through Ukraine for our OKEx Cryptour!”Fetch.ai (FET):27 November 2019 London Meetup “Join us on 27 November@primalbasehqto hear an exciting progress report as we prepare for the launch of our #mainnet”
Encrypted project calendar（November 28, 2019）
Horizen (ZEN):28 November 2019 Weekly Insider Team updates at 3:30 PM UTC/ 11:30 AM EDT: Engineering, Node network, Product/UX, Helpdesk, Legal, BD, Marketing, CEO Closing thoughts, AMA.
Encrypted project calendar（November 30, 2019）
Ethos (ETHOS):30 November 2019 (or earlier) Rebranding “In November, we unveil the broker token, a dynamic utility token to power our commission-free crypto trading and broker platform, Voyager.”Digitex Futures (DGTX):30 November 2019 Public Testnet Launch “…We can expect to see the world’s first zero-commission futures trading platform live on the Ethereum public testnet from 30th November.”Monero (XMR):30 November 2019 Protocol Upgrade “Preliminary information thread regarding the scheduled protocol upgrade of November 30.”Chiliz (CHZ):30 November 2019 (or earlier) Fiat to CHZ Exchanges “We will add another two fiat to $CHZ exchanges in November…”Skrumble Network (SKM):30 November 2019 (or earlier) P2P & Group Calling “P2P & Group Video Calling,” during November 2019.Aergo (AERGO):30 November 2019 (or earlier) Mainnet 2.0 Upgrade Mainnet 2.0 Protocol update by end of November.Akropolis (AKRO):30 November 2019 (or earlier) Beta Release “All functionality has been deployed to mainnet.”Nash Exchange (NEX):30 November 2019 (or earlier) Mobile Strategy Phase 2 “Phase 2 of our mobile strategy will be live soon with our wallet and portfolio app hitting stores in November!”
Encrypted project calendar（November 31, 2019）
Wanchain (WAN):31 December 2019 (or earlier) Wanchain 4.0 Release Wanchain 4.0, which introduces private chains integration and multi-coin wallet, released in Dec 2019.QuarkChain (QKC):31 December 2019 (or earlier) Token Testnet Release Testnet for Multi-Native-Token and New Consensuses.
Super Beginners Guide to getting started in Cryptocurrency. (written from a Canadians Perspective)
Getting Started in Crypto What is cryptocurrency? In the most basic sense a cryptocurrency is an encrypted currency (generally decentralized but not always) that functions on a blockchain. This was executed first by satoshi nakamoto in 2008 after the financial crisis caused by the crash of the housing market. The creation of bitcoin and blockchain solved the double spending problem, which in turn paved the way for everything that has and will come. What is blockchain? This question can be answered in many ways, for sake of this guide I’m just going to do it in the simplest and if you want more detail I am happy to provide. “The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value”. What that means is that it’s a system the cannot be corrupted, and records everything done on a given exchange network. In terms of currency that means that every transaction is recorded somewhere on the blockchain. In terms of other goods or services there are endless possibilities. Coin vs Token. In its most basic sense a coin is a cryptocurrency unit that is exactly that, a currency. Generally, the early players in the cryptocurrency world are coins. You have coins such as bitcoin, litecoin, and monero. A token on the other hand is a cryptocurrency that has a broader function. These tend to be the new school of crypto and you get things like ether, ripple, raiblocks, and so on. It is important to be able to distinguish between the two so that you know exactly what you end up investing in. Exchanges and Wallets. So, once you finally decide you want to get involved the first steps are to find yourself a wallet and exchange for your desired currency. Wallets can be found online and generally most cryptocurrencies have designated wallets you can find on their website. Exchanges are where your fiat currency (things like cad and usd) and then exchange for whatever you desire. Coinbase is the biggest exchange as of right now, however it isn’t Canadian friendly and only holds 4 currencies as of now (that number will change in the future). I personally use Quadrigacx, it is a Canadian exchange based out of Vancouver where uploading fiat currency is easy once you become verified (submit required documents). It is very secure, and I have had no problems with it to date. Now, quadrigacx only exchanges a handful of currencies so if you are looking for one that isn’t on there these will be your steps. Wire capital to quadrigacx, buy BTC, transfer your BTC to an exchange that carries what you like, and purchase it through there. The list of exchanges I use, and trust include: bittrex, binance, kucoin, yobit, coinexchange.io. kraken, and radar relay. Now once you start to get involved I suggest you stick to quadrigacx, bittrex, binance. Those are the major players and by far the easiest to use. Once you get more accustomed to the environment of trading then I would say branching out is a good idea. What to buy? Fuck, good question. The most important question you must ask yourself is do you want a short or long-term investment. To start your journey, I would say long term would be the best bet. You can purchase some crypto, watch it go, pay attention to the market and what influences it and make some steady gains (hopefully). Long term investments are held (in my opinion) for at minimum three weeks. My rule of thumb for long term investments is that it must fit 3 criteria. It must be a technology I believe in and like, a reputable team must back it, and it MUST BE SCALABLE. If something fits those then I’m in for the long haul. Now short-term investments are not day trading. What I mean by short term investments are small shitcions that have good ideas, followings, and has potential to gain fast traction. Personally, when I choose short term investments I like them to be under 2 dollars and I hold them for 3 days to 3 weeks. If I’m not happy with them at any time within that period, then I’m out. DON’T BE A GREEDY SON OF BITCH Now to elaborate on my previous points, if you have a long-term investment… ITS SUPPOSED TO BE LONG TERM. Now I’m not saying you can never walk away with profit because profit isn’t profit until you pull it out. This is kind of a double-edged sword and this is what distinguishes good traders from average. You need to have the stomach to hold when others pull out and panic sell, and you need to have the brains to pull out before it crashes. In other words, you need to be smart about every single action you make in the crypto world and you need to make every decision for yourself. Not because you read some crackpot of reddit panic selling over a 2% dip. INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION You must understand that cryptocurrency is not stocks. You are not buying into a company, you are purchasing a good. This is imperative to understand. The cryptocurrency world does not sleep like the stock market does, it is constantly moving whether you are paying attention to it or not. This means that sometimes you are going to get lucky and stumble upon something at 2am on a Tuesday night that could make you rich, or maybe you lose out on something because you were sleeping. Shit happens, and you can’t dwell on it. It is a volatile market and you must do the best you can in the present moment and not get caught up in the past or future. Those who try to predict the market lose it all. Be smart all the time and think every decision through. Information is constantly flowing which means you need to be an active member in the community if you want to stay on top of it, this means reddit, google news, telegram, discord, and people. It is so easy to network and get involved, and it really is an overall safe and good community. One of the best parts of cryptocurrency is that everyone involved wants it to succeed, and for it to succeed everyone needs to help everyone. That is why I am writing this for you. You need to constantly be educating yourself. Understand that you can’t be an expert, but you can be educated. There will always be others out there who know more than you, and you must be willing to find and learn from them. Be respectful and ask questions ALL THE TIME. Is it a bubble? Notice how I didn’t ask the question “will it crash” because the answer to that is always going to yes. That is how people buy low and sell high to make money. You want to get in low, and sell before it crashes. In the past 2 months the crypto world has experienced 3 major crashes. All of them has recovered and all of them were great opportunities to make good money. Like I said, be smart and try your best to be ahead of the game. That being said you are going to lose money at times. That is okay, just make sure you learn from it. Sometimes it can be attributed to poor decision making, and other times its just shit luck. ITS OKAY. In my opinion crypto currency is not a bubble. Blockchain technology has the ability to change the world in radical ways we haven’t even thought of yet. For something to be a bubble it must lack utility, but everyday more and more utility comes around for cryptocurrency. Whether it be buying goods with bitcoin or banks implementing ripple into their everyday business life. Safety Now in an online world you must do a lot on your own. This means you must be safe about everything. Double and triple check everything, avoid anything you don’t 100% believe in, and keep everything safe. This means all your passwords and code need to be written down in at least 3 places as well as up your ass for good measure. You lose your shit you lose your money. Simple. Don’t be fucking around and handing anything out to anyone because in an environment where you can make everything in an hour… you can lose more in seconds. So be weary and trust your gut. And that’s it for the basic guide. If you have any more questions or want more in depth knowledge or insight I’m happy to give what I know upon further request. Remember that this is a volatile market and everything I said it just MY opinion and knowledge. Take it with a grain of salt and question everything for yourself. Don’t invest anything you aren’t willing to lose and be involved for the right reasons. Cheers and good luck.
Hello Bitcoin Canada, I am new to cryptocurrency and I've been messing around with a small amount of money lately, but I just made my first decent size purchase and I plan to HODL!... I somehow lost some money though along the way and I am trying to understand where. So.... I bought approx 2 ETH (~$1970) on quadrada and transferred to binance. I Then bought 600 XRP at 0.00330517 ETH/XRP but I basically immediately had a value of ~$1740. Where did I go wrong here? I'll try to provide as much information as I can on my trades. My only guess is that the ETH on Quad was $985 CAD each, but ETH on binance at the time was worth $754 USD which I didn't realize. Id lose about $70 there over both ETH. It still doesn't add up to over $200 lost in these trades.... Thank you!
Shining some light on RCN's recent growth and it's future
Hi, I found a coin that not many people talk about here so I would like to get some thoughts. It's getting more exposure on 4chan but there has been maybe 2 threads about it here. Since the price increased of 30% today I felt that I should give some more information. This is a copy and paste of some information that is circulated around 4chan about this coin. Market cap= 67 Million. What problem it solves: A global peer-to-peer credit network based on co-signed smart contracts. With RCN you aren't limited to just borrowing crypto (btc,eth etc) you can borrow any currency in the world. (USD,CAD,YEN) The RCN team has over 15 developers and genius advisors such as Sergio Lerner the cofounder of rootstock. Key investors= Bilionaire Tim Draper; The guy that found skype in 2005 and sold his share for 1 billion USD recently, the guy that bought 30,000 bitcoin from the us goverment during the silk road closure. Bilioniare Lu Guanqiu ceo of the company Fenbushi Capital;Once called “China’s Elon Musk” for buying out an American hybrid-electric car company, Lu Guanqiu is the founder of Wanxiang Group, one of China’s largest automotive parts manufacturers. ^ These guys do not fuck around google there history. This coin was added on bittrex A WEEK AFTER being released. Name one coin recently that was added to bitterx instnatly? This coin is serious... do you think these billionaires would invest in this coin if it wasn't going to literally 50x? Follow the smart money /biz/ It literally is around ICO price. The ICO pre-sale had NO BONUSES. Do some googling please. But even if there were, what does Tim Draper have to gain from making 10% on 10 Million? When you're in the billions you're only concerned with making 100s of millions. Thats why they invest in ICO and HOLD. Maybe he'll dump some when its 3-400M market cap, probably not till its nearing a billion (est. Q1 2019) or more. In developing countries such as in South America, it has been reported that up to 65% of the population are Unbanked and may have no access to Credit Facilities through traditional banking. Ripio intends to solve these problem by providing these users with an alternative Credit Facility. The Ripio Credit Network works to connect borrowers, lenders, and other network agents all over the world, allowing each one of them to manage the credit in their local currencies, as long as they have Internet access. In developing countries such as in South America, it has been reported that up to 65% of the population are Unbanked and may have no access to Credit Facilities through traditional banking. Ripio intends to solve these problem by providing these users with an alternative Credit Facility. The Ripio Credit Network works to connect borrowers, lenders, and other network agents all over the world, allowing each one of them to manage the credit in their local currencies, as long as they have Internet access. How does it work? The Network will consist of a Borrower, Lender, Wallet Provider, and Credit Exchange. All of which will be connected through a Smart Contract. The flow of money is as below: Borrower <- Wallet Provider <- Smart Contract <- Credit Exchange <- Lender To illustrate: Let’s say Juan in Argentina wants to borrow $5,000. Lin, who is halfway around the world in Shanghai is willing to loan him the $5,000 + 10% Interest. Once the terms are agreed, Lin sends the money through the Credit Exchange in Fiat. The Credit Exchange uses that Fiat to purchase RCN Tokens to send it over to Juan’s Wallet Provider through a Smart Contract. Juan receives the RCN Tokens and converts it back to Fiat. When it is time to repay the loan, Juan returns $5,500 through the same Channel, by using RCN Tokens as a medium. The borrower receives Fiat after converting the RCN Tokens. All loans work on a Fiat basis between borrower and lender, by simply using RCN Tokens as a medium of exchange. What does this mean and how can we benefit from it? There are 2 main ways to benefit from the Ripio Credit Network ecosystem: If you are a lender, you can lend in Fiat and earn interest in Fiat. If you are a RCN token holder, you will become a liquidity provider to facilitate the P2P loans, and earn through the increase in value of RCN Tokens. What value does the RCN token holders have and why should the price increase? All RCN token holders will become liquidity providers. For any loan to go through, RCN tokens will need to be purchased from the Market to facilitate the transfers. The higher the number of transactions, the higher the demand for RCN, and thus the higher the Price of RCN tokens. Investment Proposition • The ONLY source of RCN Tokens at the moment are held by the public, as the Company’s tokens are locked for 1 year. • Ripio has an actual working product with 100k users, all 100k of whom will be migrated to the RCN Exchange next week! - http://rcn.exchange/ • Ripio themselves will be the first big lender, which means that they will go to the market and acquire the RCN tokens, generating demand. • As new credit exchanges and lenders join to the network there will be even more demand for the RCN token. • Top A-grade institutional investor such as Pantera Capital, Fenbushi (Vitalik Buterin's Fund), Tim Draper, Digital Currency Group, Medici Ventures, Huiyin Blockchain Ventures has invested in the company What exchanges have listed RCN? • Bittrex (despite extremely strict with listing recently) • Binance • Huobi Pro • More to follow.. My personal opinion: Being from a developing country myself, it is easy to underestimate the number of Unbanked people who have no access to Credit Facilities. Like it or not, Credit is an essential part of expansion and development in an Economy. As for the Company, what makes Ripio stand out is the creation of a true Utility for their token, whereby all parties in the ecosystem are incentivized to use it and will benefit from it’s increase in Price. As Vitalik Buterin would say, the Crypto-Economics of their Model is spot on. This is my personal opinion. As always, do your own research and feel free to leave any comments or questions. TLDR; • RCN Tokens are used as “gas” to facilitate P2P loans • RCN Tokens have to be bought from the open market • Ripio themselves will act as lenders and purchase RCN Tokens from market • RCN Exchange launching next week. 100k users migrating • The higher the number of transactions, the higher the demand, the higher the price of RCN Tokens For an in-depth review, you can read their whitepaper, which is available at https://ripiocredit.network/ The market for alternate finance gained popularity in recent years. A finding by Transparency Market Research suggests that “the opportunity in the global peer-to-peer market will be worth $897.85 billion by the year 2024, from $26.16 billion in 2015. The market is anticipated to rise at a whopping CAGR [Compound Annual Growth Rate] of 48.2% between 2016 and 2024.” While Research and Markets estimates the global P2P lending market to grow at a CAGR of 53.06% during the five year period between 2016 and 2020. Morgan Stanley in a report in 2015 predicted that such marketplace lending would command $150 billion to $490 billion globally by 2020. http://www.nasdaq.com/article/the-rise-of-peertopeer-p2p-lending-cm685513 Ripio's value is not based on a coin gimmick, the tech behind RCN is nothing special. Ripio's value comes from the fact that it has proven people going into an industry that is sure to rise and they will start making money in the near future, not 2-3 years from now, but NEXT year. By april their roadmap will be complete. So, what do you guys think?
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